Scytale Cipher is a transposition cipher, which means it rearranges the order of letters in a message rather than substituting them with other characters.

Rail Fence Cipher is a classical type of transposition cipher. It derives its name from the manner in which encryption is performed, in analogy to a fence built with horizontal rails.

Polybius Square Cipher is essentially identical to the simple substitution cipher, except that each plaintext character is enciphered as 2 ciphertext characters. It can ususally be detected if there are only 5 or 6 different characters in the ciphertext.

Playfair Cipher is a manual symmetric encryption technique and was the first literal digram substitution cipher. It encrypts pairs of letters (bigrams or digrams), instead of single letters as in the simple substitution cipher and rather more complex Vigenère cipher systems then in use.

Homophonic Substitution Cipher is a substitution cipher in which single plaintext letters can be replaced by any of several different ciphertext letters. They are generally much more difficult to break than standard substitution ciphers.

Hill Cipher is a polygraphic substitution cipher based on linear algebra. Invented by Lester S. Hill in 1929, it was the first polygraphic cipher in which it was practical (though barely) to operate on more than three symbols at once. It used matrices and matrix multiplication to mix up the plaintext.

The Enigma Cipher was a field cipher used by the Germans during World War II. The Enigma is one of the better known historical encryption machines, and it actually refers to a range of similar cipher machines.

Caesar Cipher, also known as Shift Cipher, or Caesar Shift, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. It is a type of substitution cipher in which each letter in the plaintext is replaced by a letter some fixed number of positions down the alphabet.

Autokey Cipher is a polyalphabetic substitution cipher. It is closely related to the Vigenere cipher, but uses a different method of generating the key.

Affine Cipher is a type of monoalphabetic substitution cipher. It encrypts a text using an affine function (f(x) = ax + b).

The ADFGX Cipher is a fractionating transposition cipher which combined a modified Polybius square with a single columnar transposition. It is closely related to the ADFGVX Cipher.

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