Straddle Checkerboard Cipher is a substitution cipher, except that the substitutions are of variable length. It has formed a component of several impotant field ciphers, the most notable being the VIC cipher used by russian spies during the cold war.

Running Key Cipher is a type of polyalphabetic substitution cipher in which a text, typically from a book, is used to provide a very long keystream.

Simple Substitution Cipher is a cipher that has been in use for many hundreds of years. It basically consists of substituting every plaintext character for a different ciphertext character.

ROT13 Cipher is a simple letter substitution cipher with a specific key where the letters of the alphabet are offset 13 places.

Porta Cipher is a polyalphabetic substitution cipher invented by Giovanni Battista della Porta. Where the Vigenere cipher is a polyalphabetic cipher with 26 alphabets, the Porta is basically the same except it only uses 13 alphabets. The 13 cipher alphabets it uses are reciprocal, so enciphering is the same as deciphering.

Columnar Transposition Cipher is a fairly simple, easy to implement cipher. It is a transposition cipher that follows a simple rule for mixing up the characters in the plaintext to form the ciphertext.

Vernam Cipher (also known as the one-time pad (OTP)) is an encryption technique that cannot be cracked, but requires the use of a one-time pre-shared key the same size as, or longer than, the message being sent.

Four-Square Cipher encrypts pairs of letters (like playfair), which makes it significantly stronger than substitution ciphers etc. since frequency analysis becomes much more difficult.

Bifid Cipher is a cipher which combines the Polybius square with transposition, and uses fractionation to achieve diffusion.

Beaufort Cipher, is a polyalphabetic substitution cipher that is similar to the Vigenère cipher, except that it enciphers characters in a slightly different manner.

Atbash Cipher is a substitution cipher with a specific key where the letters of the alphabet are reversed. I.e. all 'A's are replaced with 'Z's, all 'B's are replaced with 'Y's, and so on. It was originally used for the Hebrew alphabet, but can be used for any alphabet.

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